Knowledge Base

Physiology

Humans aren’t machines—we’re much more complicated. Exercise physiology involves changes in the body from exercise and rest.

From anaerobic threshold to environmental acclimatization, from FTP to PGC-1 alpha, we explore the science of human performance.

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Physiology > Environmental Physiology

X-ray of a pelvis.

The Effects of Cycling on Bone Health

A 2023 study claims cycling can cause significant bone density loss in as little as a year. Is there more to the story?

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triathlete racing in the heat

Exercise in the Heat Pathway

Endurance athletes inevitably face the challenges imposed by training and racing in the heat. How do our bodies respond, and what are ways that we can best prepare? Learn how to beat the heat with advice from Dr. Stephen Cheung, Dr. Stephen Seiler, and a range of experts and coaches.

physiological responses to altitude

Physiological Responses to Altitude

Head Coach Ryan Kohler details the profound physiological impacts that altitude can have on our heart rate and power output.

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winter guide to indoor cycling

Your Winter Guide to Indoor Cycling, with Dr. Stephen Cheung

Dr. Stephen Cheung leads a discussion on indoor cycling, including heat management, adaptive differences between indoor and outdoor workouts, and what to do with those “nice” winter days when you can sneak outdoors.

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cyclist climbs Flagstaff Mountain in the snow

Why Can’t I Go As Fast When It’s Cold?

Cold temperatures can have a big impact on our physiology. We detail the performance effects of cold temps, and learn how to combat them.

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Fat bike in the snow

The Importance of Staying Warm on Your Bike

Cold temperatures can affect not only comfort but performance during your rides and races. We teach you how to stay warm and dry all year long.

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