Knowledge Base

Physiology

Humans aren’t machines—we’re much more complicated. Exercise physiology involves changes in the body from exercise and rest.

From anaerobic threshold to environmental acclimatization, from FTP to PGC-1 alpha, we explore the science of human performance.

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Physiology > Hydration

Cramping runner

The Myth of Cramping

Dehydration? Electrolyte imbalance? Heat? None of these actually causes cramping, according to new theories. Coach Trevor Connor takes a closer look.

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heart cardiovascular drift

Cardiovascular Drift, with Dr. Ed Coyle

Cardiovascular drift is an instability in heart rate and stroke volume over time. On the bike, we measure it by looking at a rise in heart rate relative to power. We dive in.

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